Smart Contracts: the end of lawyers? (English Version)

According to Vitalik Buterin, inventor and founder of Ethereum, a smart contract is a program that directly controls digital assets
Jeff Garzik, co-founder of Bloq, is convinced that smart contracts will replace traditional contracts and, ultimately, lawyers: "Smart contracts provide a very specific set of results. There can be no confusion, so there can be no conflict. It simply involves a limited range of possibilities guaranteed by the computer. " 
To understand what we are talking about, we might need to step back. 
We have gone from the age of the pc to the era of the internet. From the era of internet to the era of mobile and now, from mobile, came the era of blockchain. 
Blockchain is often referred to as a distributed database that provides an unalterable and public register of digital transactions. The most popular blockchain application is Bitcoin, but in addition to the adoption of criptovalutes, blockchain can now be used both as a non-alterable digital transaction register and as a platform for executing transactions, that is, for smart contracts. Smart contracts allow you to transact safely, efficiently (without intermediaries), in a transparent way and without conflicts. Many online purchasing systems incorporate smart contracts, in the sense that there are automated procedures that are executed once the contract is signed or concluded, regardless of the subsequent wishes of the subscribers.
A smart contract is self-executing
This means that it runs under certain predetermined conditions without any external intervention. Unlike a normal contract, it is written in code, according to an IF / THEN scheme. If the payment is successful, then the download begins. (This example is inaccurate but easy to understand) The smart contract receives information as input and performs actions as output, once inputs are processed according to predefined rules. This process is deterministic: the same inputs match the same outputs. There is no need for an intermediary to guarantee its execution and there is no need for a lawyer to draft the contract, just a programmer. 
A smart contract comes from three key concepts: 
  • The transposition of rights and obligations into code, in a program; 
  • The representation of "events", such as the occurrence of a condition, in terms of messages that are sent to the program itself; 
  • A mechanism that puts the effects into effect according to the rules written in the program. 

Smart contract can provide for obligations, warranties, terms, conditions, etc., as a traditional contract would do. Contrary to a traditional contract, however, the smart contract can not be not executed and therefore you do not have to rely on a third party to guarantee the execution.
Nick Szabo is the one who conceived smart contracts more than twenty years ago and speaks of them as an inevitable evolution. In his introduction to the Smart Contract White Paper, Nick Szabo makes some examples. Smart phones are much more functional than traditional phones, which in turn are much more functional than paper-written messages. In the same way smart contracts are much more functional than traditional contracts since they can automate many types of processes and operations, the simplest of them being payment and the action that comes from it (pay-download). According to Szabo, the forerunner of smart contracts is the vending machine, automatic vending machine: pour coin, drink drops. Or better: If I enter the required amount in the machine, then the machine will make available the drink I chose. "If-this-then-that" according to what is called a "self-executing-bases". 
One of the areas where smart contracts are widely used is the music industry. In this case, since it's possible to share online music, it has become increasingly difficult to collect royalties from using a product, music, music files. To pay someone for his music, one needs to be sure about who is eligible to receive the payment and how to make the payment. Through blockchain technology and smart contracts, you create a vast and accurate database of who is eligible to receive payment for your music, plus the ability to receive payment instantly and safely. 
An image is worth more than a thousand words: here is an example of smart contracts according to the Ethereum platform. 
Some argue that smart contracts will represent the end of the lawyers - it may be. 
However, when smart contracts have reached a higher level of sophistication, when with smart contracts we can do more complex operation than music downloads - with every respect for music and download! - then it will be necessary to integrate legal categories into the code and doing so will require someone with a legal and technical training on smart contracts. In fact, in the logic "IF-THIS-THEN-THAT" THIS AND THAT are legal categories such as terms, conditions, warranties, refinements, effects, etc. So maybe we will not look exactly at the lawyers' apocalypse but on their (our) transformation, evolution, towards a professional figure that combines legal and technological skills. We'll see.

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